New research could help astrobiologists understand the alkalinity, pH and nitrogen content of ancient waters on Mars, and by extension, the carbon dioxide composition of the planet’s ancient atmosphere. Study seeks understanding of how Mars may have once hosted oceans and life. Scientists have devised new analytical tools to break […]

Minaret limestone formations in the Jenolan Caves, NSW. Credit: Shutterstock Caves are easily forgotten when fire rips through the bush, but despite their robustness the long-term impact of frequent, unprecedented fire seasons presents a new challenge for subsurface geology. Famous caves at tourist hotspots survived the brunt of the Australian […]

Diamond’s physical properties make it a valuable material for medicine, industry, quantum computing technologies and biological sensing. With the right amount of pressure and surprisingly little heat, a substance found in fossil fuels can transform into pure diamond. It sounds like alchemy: take a clump of white dust, squeeze it […]

Stone tools found at the Dhaba site corresponding with the Toba volcanic super-eruption levels. Pictured here are diagnostic Middle Palaeolithic core types. Credit: Chris Clarkson New archaeological work supports the hypothesis that human populations were present in India by 80,000 years ago and that they survived one of the largest […]