New Group of Ancient Flying Reptiles Identified by Paleontologists

Pterosaurs fly over a shallow seaway dotted with reefs and lagoons. Research by an international team of paleontologists is shedding new light on how, and where, these ancient flying reptiles lived.
Credit: Illustration by Julius Csotonyi

Study describes new group of pterosaurs, identifies crustacean-heavy diet.

New research suggests that ancient flying reptiles known as pterosaurs were much more diverse than originally thought, according to a new study by an international group of paleontologists including scientists at the University of Alberta and the Museu Nacional in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The research describes an ancient and extremely well-preserved pterosaur specimen originally discovered in a private limestone quarry in Lebanon more than 15 years ago.

“The diversity of these ancient animals was much greater than we could ever have guessed at, and is likely orders of magnitude more diverse than we will ever be able to discover from the fossil record,” said Michael Caldwell, co-author and professor in the Department of Biological Sciences and the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences.

Results also suggest that this particular type of pterosaur likely fed on crustaceans, flying on long, narrow wings and catching its prey at the surface as do modern seabirds such as the albatross and frigatebird.

“Pterosaur specimens, the first vertebrates to achieve powered flight, are still quite rare in the African continent,” said Alexander Kellner of the Museu Nacional and professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. “Here we describe the best preserved material of these group of flying reptiles known from this continent so far, shedding new and much needed light on the evolutionary history of these volant creatures.”

The new pterosaur lived 95 million years ago in the early part of the Late Cretaceous, in the middle of what is now called the Tethys Seaway—a vast expanse of shallow marine waters filled with reefs and lagoons, separating Europe from Africa and stretching all the way to Southeast Asia. The study finds that these pterosaurs living in the Tethys Seaway are related to those from China.

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