Spooky ‘spiders on Mars’ finally explained after two decades
Ziggy played guitar, and scientists in the U.K. played with a big chunk of dry ice to try to figure out what’s behind the strange alien patterns known as the “spiders on Mars.”
Those patterns, visible in satellite images of the Red Planet’s south pole, aren’t real spiders, of course; but the branching, black shapes carved into the Martian surface look creepy enough that researchers dubbed them “araneiforms” (meaning “spider-like”) after discovering the shapes more than two decades ago.
Measuring up to 3,300 feet (1 kilometer) across, the gargantuan shapes don’t resemble anything on Earth. But in a new study published March 19 in the journal Scientific Reports, scientists successfully recreated a shrunken-down version of the spiders in their lab, using a slab of carbon dioxide ice (also called dry ice) and a machine that simulates the Martian atmosphere. When the cold ice made contact with a much-warmer bed of Mars-like sediment, part of the ice instantly transformed from a solid to a gas (a process called sublimation), forming spidery cracks where the escaping gas pushed through the ice.
“This research presents the first set of empirical evidence for a surface process that is thought to modify the polar landscape on Mars,” lead study author Lauren McKeown, a planetary scientist at the Open University in England, said in a statement. “The experiments show directly that the spider patterns we observe on Mars from orbit can be carved by the direct conversion of dry ice from solid to gas. ”
The Martian atmosphere contains more than 95% carbon dioxide (CO2),according to NASA, and so much of the ice and frost that forms around the planet’s poles in winter is also made of CO2. In a 2003 study, researchers hypothesized that the spiders on Mars could form in spring, when sunlight penetrates the translucent layer of CO2 ice and heats the ground underneath. That heating causes the ice to sublimate from its base, building up pressure under the ice until it finally cracks. Pent-up gas escapes through the cracks in a gushing plume, leaving behind the zigzagging spider-leg patterns visible on Mars today, the team hypothesized.