What’s a suborbital flight? An aerospace engineer explains

Virgin Galactic’s Unity VSS spacecraft went on a suborbital test flight in May 2021.
Credit: VIrgin GalacticCC BY

“Suborbital” is a term you’ll be hearing a lot as Sir Richard Branson flies aboard Virgin Galactic’s VSS Unity winged spaceship and Jeff Bezos flies aboard Blue Origin’s New Shepard vehicle to touch the boundary of space and experience a few minutes of weightlessness.

But what exactly is “suborbital?” Simply put, it means that while these vehicles will cross the ill-defined boundary of space, they will not be going fast enough to stay in space once they get there.

If a —or anything else, for that matter—reaches a speed of 17,500 mph (28,000 km/h) or more, instead of falling back to the ground, it will continuously fall around the Earth. That continuous falling is what it means to be in orbit and is how satellites and the Moon stay above Earth.

Anything that launches to space but does not have sufficient horizontal velocity to stay in space—like these rockets—comes back to Earth and therefore flies a suborbital trajectory.

Why these suborbital flights matter

Although the two spacecraft launched in July 2021 will not reach orbit, the accomplishment of reaching space in  is a major milestone in the history of humanity. Those aboard these and all future private-sector, suborbital flights will for a few minutes be in space, experience a few minutes of exhilarating weightlessness and absolutely earn their astronaut wings.

A well-thrown baseball

Conceptually, the flights that Branson and Bezos will be on are not terribly different from a baseball thrown into the air.

The faster you can throw the baseball upward, the higher it will go and the longer it will stay in the air. If you throw the ball with a bit of sideways velocity as well, it will go farther down-range.

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