A cut-away of Earth’s interior shows the solid iron inner core (red) slowly growing by freezing of the liquid iron outer core (orange). Seismic waves travel through the Earth’s inner core faster between the north and south poles (blue arrows) than across the equator (green arrow). The researchers concluded that […]

Cut-away diagram of a water-rich sub-Neptune exo-planet highlighting, in orange color, the interaction region between a deep H2O layer and the underlying rocky mantle. Credit: S. Speziale/ GFZ Deep Oceans Dissolve the Rocky Shell of Water-Ice Planets What is happening deep beneath the surface of ice planets? Is there liquid […]

Standing 9 kilometers tall from the base on the seafloor to the summit, Mauna Loa is the largest volcano on Earth. Credit: USGS Researchers find that a large earthquake could set off eruption of Hawaii’s Mauna Loa volcano. Scientists from the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and […]

This illustration, updated as of December 2020, depicts NASA’s Europa Clipper spacecraft. The mission, targeting a 2024 launch, will investigate whether Jupiter’s moon Europa and its internal ocean have conditions suitable for life. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech Jupiter’s moon Europa has an icy crust covering a vast, global ocean. The rocky layer […]

Model for the Earth’s core: Heidelberg researchers verify presence of solar noble gases in metal of an iron meteorite. High-precision noble gas analyses indicate that solar wind particles from our primordial Sun were encased in the Earth’s core over 4.5 billion years ago. Researchers from the Institute of Earth Sciences […]

Nitrogen-bearing, Earth-like planets can be formed if their feedstock material grows quickly to around moon- and Mars-sized planetary embryos before separating into core-mantle-crust-atmosphere, according to Rice University scientists. If metal-silicate differentiation is faster than the growth of planetary embryo-sized bodies, then solid reservoirs fail to retain much nitrogen and planets […]

This illustration uses data obtained by NASA’s Juno mission to depict high-altitude electrical storms on Jupiter. Juno’s sensitive Stellar Reference Unit camera detected unusual lightning flashes on Jupiter’s dark side during the spacecraft’s close flybys of the planet. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Gerald Eichstädt Raindrops on other planets and moons are close to […]

The meteorite studied in this work, named Miles, weighed 265 kg when it was discovered on a farm in Queensland, Australia, in 1992. This photo shows a 20-centimeter slice of the Miles meteorite loaned by the Harvard Museum of Natural History collection. Credit: Clara Maurel/MIT The signatures of ancient magnetic […]

Analysis of the first super slow motion recordings of upward flashes suggests a possible explanation for the formation of luminous structures after electrical discharges split in the atmosphere. Credit: INPE Analysis of the first super slow motion recordings of upward flashes suggests a possible explanation for the formation of luminous […]