In 1940, Hendrik Kramers (left) predicted theoretically that in a double-well system (center bottom) transitions between the stable states happen most frequently at intermediate friction (upper right). The background shows a detail of the laser system used to confirm Kramers’ prediction experimentally. Credit: Jan Gieseler; Image of H. Kramers courtesy […]

Credit: CC0 Public Domain Researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have created a nanophotonic chip system using lasers and bacteria to observe fluorescence emitted from a single bacterial cell. To fix the bacteria in place and to route light toward individual bacterial cells, they used V-groove-shaped plasmonic waveguides, tiny […]

Levels of ultrafine particulate matter in São Paulo City, Brazil, increased by up to 30% at times when ethanol prices rose and consumption fell. Credit: Léo Ramos Chaves / Pesquisa FAPESP magazine When ethanol prices at the pump rise for whatever reason, it becomes economically advantageous for drivers of dual-fuel […]


By expanding brain tissue twice, MIT scientists were able to obtain high-resolution images of neurons in the hippocampus. A group of scientists from MIT have developed a way to make extremely high-resolution images of tissue samples at a fraction of the cost of previous techniques. By expanding tissue before imaging […]